PACE Temperament Sorter Preference Indicator

"It does not take science to tell that no two human beings are idenitically alike, but it does require the discipline of systematic inquiry to give, in terms of scales and categories, a useful description of individual differences."

In 1993, Marie Elkin created the PACE Temperament Sorter Preference Indicator with contributions from Pete Heineman. The PACE systems draws upon the works of Carbo (1988), Golay (1982), Gregorc (NP), Hill (NP), Keirsey (1978), Kolb (1985), Kroeger (ND), and Myers (1942). The indicator conjugates Myers personality types in relation to the extraversion or introversion of the individual's dominant, Keirsey's association of certain MBTI personality types with temperaments, and connotes further characteristics which might be compared but are not limited to either MBTI types or Keirseyan temperaments. Elkin categorizes observable behavioral patterns as; Player, Analyst, Care Giver, Expressor.


Players exhibit the characteristics of performers, adventurers, and risk takers. They tend to prefer physical interaction and hands-on learning. They require activity, competition and challenges. They like videos, slide programs, and movies--anything showing motion. Sometimes, Players create disturbances in the traditional classroom environment where they may appear to be bored, especially with paper work. Players often rebel against supervision and instruction through clever devisiveness. They are frequently the drop-outs of traditional schools or have frequent absences. They are often late to class and late with assignments. Players have a strong desire to be liked. They like interaction, variety, and tend to act spontaneously. They learn best from experiences and tend to order their world in three-dimensional patterns. Players have a kinesthetic learning style.


Analysts enjoy knowledge for its own sake. They prefer self-directed learning as opposed to a more traditional approach of instruction. They tend to describe their feelings in terms of thoughts. They may not complete assignments and prefer to work alone. Analysts do not value other qualities as much as intelligence. At times, they appear to be oblivious to others' feelings. They often need help participating in recreational activities. They also need constant success experiences. Analysts, know, then learn. They learn criticism through experimentation. They have high standards for improvement and seek perfection in all things. They believe the world is abstract. Analysts have a polysyllabic and highly verbal command of the language. They tend to order their world in sequential and two-dimensional patterns. Analysts have an audio cognitive style.

Care Giver

The Care Giver relates well to the traditional classroom and the traditional form of instruction. They accept the teacher's style because they want to please. They like paper-and-pencil type of tasks and typically appreciate step-by-step instructions. Care Givers want clear directions. They learn, and then know. They respond best to writing. The Care Giver becomes less dependable when asked to analyze. They thrive on stability. A Care Giver typically likes to work at a task in increments. They identify and memorize facts. Their work is typically meticulous. Care Givers take responsibility and want personal proof. They tend to order their world in sequential linear progression. The Care Giver has a visual cognitive style.


The Expressor retreats when rediculed--they thrive on personal attention. They tend to need written personal feedback. Expressors like discussion, role playing, and working in pairs. They strive for cooperation. Expressors tend to be self-competitive and willing to share. They enjoy interpersonal communicaiton and human relations. They prefer the democratic classroom and respond well to recognition and individualized instruction. The Expressor wants self-directedness. They learn through personalization. Expressors enjoy learning about values and people--they want to be seen as being unique. The Expressor orders their world in a random multidimentional manner. They have a tactile cognitive style.

In addition, the basic patterns are expanded to include subcategories for each temperament which are described as:

Player Initiator

The Player Initiator tries to create a reactive environment. They often spend long periods of time figuring out how to get a reaction to a particular action, situation or conversation. They may not be interested in pursuing that action once a reaction, posture, or negative response is received.

Player Reactor

These Players react to situations or conversations that already exist. Most of their living and learning takes place in a spontaneous situation. They learn in the moment. They are not usually interested in how their learning or behavior will affect the future of others.

Analyst Orderer

These adults prioritize possibiities, people, and responsibilities. At first glimpse, they may appear to be a Care Giver, but they are actually working with systems and not things. They may have a number of projects going at the same time. If they do, they will concern themselves with how the project will actually and effectively work when they are completed. They delegate tasks well.

Analyst Searcher

These Analysts look for answers. They seek knowledge through a series of questions usually beginning with "Why?" They like to debate both sides of an issue and they are constantly seeking understanding through gaining more intellectual information. They relate to ideas and concern themselves with both the cause and effect of these ideas.

Care Giver Doer

These adults work diligently at helping others by doing something tangible. They make things, or fix things, persons or situations which they perceive to be broken or need correction. They are often very active people moving from one activity or need to another. They tend to have a goal to get things done. They look for facts and results.

Care Giver Tender

These Care Givers provide nurturing to those whom they see as being in need of help. Their primary purpose is to serve. They take great care in preparing assignments, wishing to please the instructor. They are often reluctant to say how they feel although they are very aware that their feelings may be affecting their work. They look for facts and their impact on people.

Expressor Empathisor

These adults wish to create an emotional climate in which to work. They radiate warmth and are concerned with others' most inner feelings. They like to talk and connect with others by telling about themselves in a creative and extrasensory manner. They order their world in a fluid matrix always considering relationships and their outcomes.

Expressor Connector

These Expressors like to put relationships together. They like to link what already exists between two people. They usually like to deal with one or two people at a time. They often tell others how they (the others) feel with extreme accuracy. They spend time describing how to say things so that it fully describes all the possibiities without hurting feelings.

Elkin further proposes that Players often exhibit a dual or secondary temperament that corresponds to whether the Player introverts or extraverts their Player tendencies.

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All contents copyright (C) 1995
Peter L. Heineman
All rights reserved.

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