Appendix to Rafaeli and Revelle, 2006: Additional Information

The linked documents provide additional information to the studies reported in Rafaeli, E. & Revelle, W. (2006). A premature consensus: Are happiness and sadness truly opposite affects? Motivation and Emotion.(pdf from Springer). Note that the original appendix is available from Eshkol Rafaeli


This appendix is broken into multiple sections. Click on the relevant section for additional details.

Text sections

Section 1: Study 1- simulation code.

Section 2: Study 1- simulation method and results.

Section 3: Study 2- additional correlation and EFA results.

Section 4: Study 2- additional CFA description.


Table A-1: Study 2- Affect terms, factor loadings, communalities, angular location, and item characteristics.



Figure A-1: Study 1- VSS Results.

Figure A-2: Study 2- Correlations of all items with happy and sad.

Figure A-3: Study 2- VSS Results.

Figure A-4: Study 2- Factor loadings of all items in a two dimensional space.

Figure A-5: Study 2- Measurement and structural model of six item clusters.

Figure A-6: Study 3- Affect levels and standard errors after mood manipulations. (Uses affect scales)

Figure A-7: Study 3- Hapiness and sadness levels and standard errors after mood manipulations. (Uses single items).


References cited in this appendix

Fox, J. (2002). An R and S-PLUS Companion to Applied Regression. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Revelle, W., & Rocklin, T. (1979). Very Simple Structure: an alternative procedure for estimating the optimal number of interpretable factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 403-414.

Russell, J.A., & Carroll, J.M. (1999). On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 3-30.

Steiger, JH (1980). Tests for comparing elements of a correlation matrix.
Psychological Bulletin, 87, 245-251

Thayer, R.E. (1986). Activation-Deactivation Check-list: Current overview and structural analysis. Psychological Reports, 58, 607-614.