Theories of Personality and Individual Differences
The study of personality includes multiple approaches to the question of who we are and how and why we are similar and different to other indivduals. Some of the ways in which we study personality are developing descriptive taxonomies of individual differences. These approaches use basic psychometric and assessment techniques developed for the study of personality and ability. These approaches emphasize the "who" question of how people are similar to and yet differ from each other.
At least five different theoretical approaches address the "why" question. That is, why are there individual differences. Evolutionary Psychology emphasizes universals of human behavior and attempts to explain individual variability in terms of alternative adaptive strategies. Behavior genetic approaches analyze the variation in behavior in terms of the complex interplay between genetic and environmental influences. Systematic work in biological theorizing has emphasized the continuity of behavior across species and searches for the biological underpinnings of temperament and complex behavior. Social cognitive theories emphasize the importance of socialization and the effect of cognitive processes to create one's unique patterning of behavior. Traditional psychoanalytic techniques, although not a major area of current personality theory, did have an influence in the theories developed throughout much of the 20th century.
The following selections from each of these approaches are meant to lead the interested reader to some of the current literature. These are certainly not meant to be a complete selection, but are rather important readings that provide good overviews of the separate approaches. The interested reader is encouraged to first consult the overviews of personality before delving into these more specialized readings.
Some of the most interesting results of the past decade have been the demonstrations of the moderate to strong heritability of personality and ability. Using techniques of quantititative behavior genetics, it has become commonplace to show that roughly 40-60% of the variation in most personality traits have a genetic base. The most exciting and counter-intuitive findings have been that the shared environment is much less important than previously thought but that the unique environment is very important.
Genes do not code for thoughts, feelings, or behavior, but rather code for proteins that regulate and modulate biological systems. Although promising work has been done searching for the biological bases of individual differences it is possible to sketch out these bases only in the broadest of terms. Specific neurotransmitters and brain structures can be associated with a broad class of approach behaviors and positive affects while other neurotransmitters and structures can be associated with a similarly broad class of avoidance behaviors and negative affects. Reports relating specific alleles to specific personality traits emphasize that the broad personality traits are most likely under polygenic influence and are moderated by environmental experience.
Subtle differences in neurotransmitter availability and re-uptake vary the sensitivity of individuals to cues about their environment that predict future resource availability and external rewards and punishments. It is the way these cues are detected, attended to, stored, and integrated with previous experiences that makes each individual unique. Current work on the bases of individual differences is concerned with understanding this delicate interplay of biological propensities with environmental opportunities and constraints as they are ultimately represented in an individualÕs information processing system. With time we can expect to increase our taxonomic and predictive power by using these causal bio-social theories of individual differences.
- Davidson, R.J. (1999) Biological Bases of Personality. In Derlega, V., Winstead, B.A., Jones, W.H. Personality: Contemporary Theory and Research. (2nd Edition). Nelson Hall, 1999, Chicago.
- Depue, R. A. and Collins, P.F. (1999) Neurobiology of the Structure of Personality: Dopamine, Facilitation of Incentive Motivation, and Extraversion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, , 491-569. An ambitious article outlining a biological model for extraversion. Includes extensive commentaries by other personality and biological theorists.
- Bates, JE., & Wachs, TD. (Eds.). (1994). Temperament: Individual Differences at the Interface of Biology and Behavior. American Psychological Association.
- Buss, DM. (Ed.) (1990). Special Issue: Biological Foundations of Personality: Evolution, Behavioral Genetics, and Psychophysiology. Journal of Personality, 58.
- Eysenck, H.J. and Eysenck, M.W. Personality and Individual Differences: A Natural Science Approach. Plenum: New York.
- Gale, A., & Eysenck, MW. (Eds.). (1992). Handbook of Individual Differences: Biological Perspectives. Chichester: Wiley.
- Zuckerman, M. (1991). Psychobiology of Personality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Recent Books that Provide Good Overviews
- Eaves, L., Eysenck, HJ., & Martin, NG. (1989). Genes, Culture, and Personality. New York: Academic.
- Loehlin, JC. (1992). Genes and Environment in Personality Development. Newberry Park, Ca.: Sage.
- Plomin, R. (1994). Genetics and Experience: The Interplay between Nature and Nurture. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
- Plomin, R., & McClearn, GE. (Ed.). (1993). Nature, Nurture, and Psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
- See also Rowe, D. C., 1999 In Derlega, V., Winstead, B.A., Jones, W.H. Personality: Contemporary Theory and Research. (2nd Edition). Nelson Hall, 1999, Chicago.
- Recent Research Articles
- Plomin R (1999) Nature Dec 2; 402(6761 Suppl): C25-9 Genetics and General Cognitive Ability. (abstract)
- Plomin R, Corley R, Caspi A, Fulker DW, DeFries J. (1998). Adoption Results for Self-Reported Personality: Evidence for Nonadditive Genetic Effects? J Pers Soc Psychol 1998 75 : 211-218 (Abstract)
- Klaus-Peter Lesch et al. (1996) Association of Anxiety-Related Traits with a Polymorphism in the Serotonin Transporter Gene Regulatory Region Science, 274.
- Goldman, D,(1996) High Anxiety, Science, 274. A Commentary on the Use of Genetic Marker Studies of Behavioral Traits.
- Vandenbergh D.J., Zonderman A.B., Wang J., Uhl G.R., and Costa P.T. Jr.: No Association between Novelty Seeking and Dopamine D4 Receptor (D4DR) Exon III Seven Repeat Alleles in Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging Participants. Molecular Psychiatry 2: 417-419, 1997. (Abstract)
- Hershberger SL, Plomin R, Pedersen NL, Traits and Metatraits: Their Reliability, Stability, and Shared Genetic Influence. J Pers Soc Psychol 1995 Oct; 69(4): 673-685 (Abstract)
- Bergeman CS, Chipuer HM, Plomin R, Pedersen NL, McClearn GE, Nesselroade JR, Costa PT Jr, McCrae RR Genetic and Environmental Effects on Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness: an Adoption/Twin Study. J Pers 1993 Jun; 61(2): 159-179 (Abstract)
- Carey G, DiLalla DL Personality and Psychopathology: Genetic Perspectives. J Abnorm Psychol 1994 Feb; 103(1): 32-43 (Abstract)
- Plomin R, Nesselroade JR. Behavioral Genetics and Personality Change. J Pers 1990 Mar; 58(1): 191-220. Abstract
- See particularly articles in Evolution and Human Behavior (The official journal of the Evolution and Human Behavior Society).
- Brain and Behavioral Sciences has a continuing set of online articles on Evolutionary Psychology.
- Wright, R. (1994) The Moral Animal: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology. New York: Pantheon Books.
- Leda Cosmides and John Tooby: Evolutionary Psychology Primer
- Tooby and Cosmides critique of Gould is a powerful essay on evolutionary psychology.
- Miele, F. (1996) The (im)Moral Animal, Skeptic vol. 4, no. 1, 1996, pp. 42-49.
- Wright, R. (1995) The Evolution of Despair (essay in Time magazine, August 28, 1995).
- See also the readings from the Center for Evolutionary Psychology at UCSB
- A new searchable list of online articles related to human behavior and evolution (maintained by Percy Rohde and Joerg Wettlaufer) (and cited by the CEP folks).
Dimensional representations of personality dimensions have emphasized between three to seven fundamental dimensions. These dimensions are, in turn, used to organize research across different laboratories. Although there is strong agreement about the importance of Introversion/Extroversion and Emotional Stability, Psychoticism, the third factor in the "Giant 3", is seen as being composed of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness in the "Five Factor Model." The lexical work of Goldberg and Norman and their associates emphasizes a descriptive taxonomy, while the biologically driven models of Gray and Eysenck emphasize a theoretical organization of personality traits.
- An abbreviated reading list describing the "Big 5" or "Five Factor Model"
- An abbreviated reading list describing the "Even Bigger 3 (The Giant 3) fundamental" dimensions.
- Other taxonometric theories of temperament are reviewed by Peter Heineman.
- Interpersonal traits including dominance and love may be organized into circumplex models of personality and interpersonal behavior as shown by Michael Gurtman.
- For items that are used to measure each of the Big 5 and for the facets of these higher order dimensions, see Lew Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool.
- Cervone, D. & Shoda, Y. (1999) The Coherence of Personality, Guilford, New York. "This volume reveals how social-cognitive structures and processes serve as a basis of personality coherence--the unique patterns of experience and action that make each of us who we are. In doing so, the volume demonstrates how a personality theory can be built on psychology's broader foundation of knowledge about cognitive and affective systems and the interactions between persons and the sociocultural environment. Presenting novel theoretical developments from leaders in personality, social, cultural, and developmental psychology, chapters show how personality coherence arises from the ways people assign meaning to social information, gain causal agency over their lives through self-knowledge and self-reflective processes, and organize multiple life events within a framework of goals and life tasks. The book stands as the most definitive presentation to date of the social-cognitive theories of personality." (from the marketing page).
- Mischel, W, & Shoda, Y, (1997) Annual Review of Psychology.
- R.M. Young has compiled an extensive reading list of psychoanalytic theory.
- The Annual Review of Psychology has excellent review chapters on personality. Many universities have site licensed the Annual Review so that you can read it on line. If not available, most libraries will have a copy.
- The Narrative Guide to Personality by Vincent Hevern at Le Moyne College reviews the work of George Kelly and Henry Murray.
- Everett Water's pages on attachment theory provides an excellent starting place for those interested in extensions of Bowlby's and Ainsworth's theories. Phil Shaver provides a discussion of measurement issues in attachment and provides a review of the current literature.
- Chris Brand has collected a fascinating set of quotes from personality researchers about almost everything. His "Resource Manual of Quotations about the Psychology of Individual and Group Differences" includes introductory comments and quotes that range from discussions of situational versus personological approaches and discussions of the most appropriate number of dimensions of personality, to discussions of the measurement of intelligence and nature and nuture.
- A thoughtful review of multiple theories of temperament in children and adults has been prepared by Peter Heineman at the University of Omaha. This includes a very good bibliography as well as short reviews of many personality temperament inventories. Tests reviewed include many of the popular tests such as the Meyers Briggs (MBTI), the Keirsey Temperament Sorter and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory. Not reviewed, nor discussed, are those tests more frequently used by personality researchers such as the Eysenck Personality Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, or Costa and McCrae's NEO-PI-R inventory.
- Daryl Bem's guidelines for writing a Psychological Bulletin paper are of use to students and faculty.
- Bem's Writing an empirical article is also a gem of insight for students and faculty alike.
- Conversations with Neil's Brain is a fascinating online book on brain structure and function by William Calvin and George A. Ojemann.