Revelle Publications

William Revelle


Professor of Psychology
Department of Psychology
Northwestern University
Evanston, Illinois, USA 60208

Telephone: 847-491-7700
Office: 315 Swift Hall
Email: revelle@northwestern.edu
My current abbreviated vita, research interests and links to papers, short courses, and classes are on my main vita page. A pdf version of my vita is also available.

  • Revelle, W. and Wilt, J (2013) The general factor of personality: a general critique. Journal of Research in Personality, (in press)
  • Smillie, L.D., Geaney, J., Wilt, J., Cooper, A.J., Revelle, W. (2013) Aspects of Extraversion are Unrelated to Pleasant Affective Reactivity: Further Examination of the Affective Reactivity Hypothesis. Journal of Research in Personality (in press)
  • Wilson, S., Revelle, W. Stroud, C.B., & Durbin, C.E. (2012) A Confirmatory Bifactor Analysis of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex and Associations of Interpersonal Traits Across Multiple Relationship Contexts and Measures. Psychological Assessment, Dec 17, 2012.
  • Revelle, W. (2013). psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research. R package version 1.3.2. http://personality-project.org/r, http://personality-project.org/r/psych.manual.pdf (This is the most recent release to CRAN.)
  • Oehlberg, K. A., Revelle, W., and Mineka, S. (2012) Time-course of attention to negative stimuli: Negative affectivity, anxiety, or dysphoria. Emotion, 12 (5),943-959.
  • Smillie, L. D., Cooper, A., Wilt, J., and Revelle, W. (2012). Do extraverts get more bang for the buck? refining the affective-reactivity hypothesis of extraversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(2), 306-326.
  • Revelle, W. (2012). Integrating personality, cognition and emotion: Putting the dots together? In Eysenck, M. W., Fajkowska, M., and Maruszewski, T., editors, Personality, cognition and emotion. Warsaw Lectures in Personality and Social Psychology, chapter 9, pages 157-177. Eliot Werner Publications, New York
  • Wilt,J. Condon, D.M., Brown-Riddell,A. and Revelle,W. Fundamental Questions in Personality. European Journal of Personality, 2012
  • Revelle W., Condon D.M., and Wilt J. (2012) Caffeine. In: V.S. Ramachandran (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 1, pp. 423-429. Academic Press.
  • Saklofske D.H., Eysenck H.J., Eysenck S.B.G., Stelmack R.M., and Revelle W. (2012) Extraversion-Introversion. In: V.S. Ramachandran (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 2, pp. 150- 159. Academic Press.
  • Swarat, S., Ortony, A., & Revelle, W. (2012). Activity matters: Understanding Student Interest in School Science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(4), 515-537.
  • Revelle, W., Wilt, J., & Condon, D. (2011). Individual differences and differential psychology: A brief history and prospect. In Chamorro- Premuzic, T., Furnham, A., and von Stumm, S., editors, Handbook of Individual Differences, chapter 1, pages 3-38. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford
  • Schalet, B., Durbin, E., & Revelle, W. (2011). Multidimensional structure of the hypomanic personality scale. Psychological Assessment, 23(2):504-522
  • Wilt, J., Condon, D., and Revelle, W. (2011). Telemetrics and online data collection: Collecting data at a distance. In Laursen, B., Little, T. D., and Card, N., editors, Handbook of Developmental Research Methods, chapter 10, pages 163-180. Guilford Press, New York
  • Wilt, J., Oehlberg, K., & Revelle, W. (2011). Anxiety in personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7):987-993
  • Revelle, W., Condon, D., & Wilt, J. (2011). Methodological advances in differential psychology. In Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Furnham, A., and von Stumm, S., editors, Handbook of Individual Differences, chapter 2, pages 39-73. Wiley-Blackwell
  • Revelle, W., Wilt, J., & Rosenthal, A. (2010) Individual differences in cognition: New methods for examining the personality-cognition link. in Aleksandra Gruszka, Gerald Matthews, and Blazej Szymura (editors): Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition: Attention, Memory and Executive Control (pdf of draft)
  • Revelle, W. & Scherer, K.R. (2010) Personality and emotion. In the Oxford Companion to the Affective Sciences, Oxford University Press. (pdf of draft)
  • Revelle, W. & Zinbarg, R.E. (2009) Coefficients alpha, beta, omega and the glb: comments on Sijtsma. Psychometrika. 74, 1, 145-154 (pdf)
  • Wilt, J. & Revelle, W. (2009) Extraversion. In Mark Leary and Rick Hoyle (Editors). Hndbook of Individual Differences in Social Behavior. Guilford. p 27-45. (pdf of final draft).
  • Revelle, W. (2009) Personality structure and measurement: the contributions of Raymond Cattell, British Journal of Psychology, 100, 253-257. (pdf)
  • Revelle, W. & Oehlberg, K. (2008) Integrating experimental and observational personality research--the contributions of Hans Eysenck. Journal of Personality. 76, 6, 1387-1414(pdf of draft)
  • Revelle, W. (2009/1010) . An overview of the psych pacakge. (A vignette for the psych package).
  • Revelle, W. (2009/2010) Using the psych package to generate and test Structural Equation Models. (A vignette for the psych package) http://personality-project.org/r/psych_for_sem.pdf.
  • Evans, A. M. & Revelle, W. (2008) Survey and behavioral measurements of interpersonal trust. Journal of Research in Personality. (preprint)
  • Revelle, W. & Wilt, J. (2008) Personality is more than reinforcement sensitivity. European Journal of Personality, 22, 5, 407-409.
  • Revelle, W. (2008) Association for Research in Personality: the home for psychological generalists. P (newsletter of the Association for Research in Personality. 2. 1-5.
  • Ortony, A., Revelle, W. & Zinbarg, R. (2008) Why emotional intelligence needs a fluid component. in Matthews, G., Roberts, R., Zeidner, M. (eds) Emotional Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns. Oxford University Press.123-129.
  • Revelle, W. (2008) The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity theory to personality theory. In P. Corr (Ed.) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality. Cambridge University Press. p 508-527, (pdf of the draft)
  • Rafaeli, E., Rogers, G. & Revelle, W. (2007) Affective synchrony: Individual differences in mixed emotions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 915-932. (pdf)
  • Zinbarg, R. E. and Revelle, W. and Yovel, I. (2007) Estimating omega_h for Structures Containing Two Group Factors: Perils and Prospects. Applied Psychological Measurement, 21, (2) 135-157.
  • Revelle, W. (2007) Experimental Approaches to the Study of Personality, In B. Robins, C. Fraley, and R. Krueger, Personality Research Methods, Guilford. p 37-61. (includes an online appendix simulating experimental data)
  • Rafaeli, E. & Revelle, W. (2006). A premature consensus: Are happiness and sadness truly opposite affects? Motivation and Emotion . 30, 1-12.(pdf from Springer). Appendices to this article are available from Eshkol Rafaeli or here.
  • Zinbarg, R., Yovel, I., Revelle, W. & McDonald, R. (2006). Estimating generalizability to a universe of indicators that all have one attribute in common: A comparison of estimators for omega. Applied Psychological Measurement, 30, 121-144. DOI: 10.1177/0146621605278814
  • Zinbarg, R.E., Revelle, W., Yovel, I., & Li. W. (2005). Cronbach's Alpha, Revelle's Beta, McDonald's Omega: Their relations with each and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Psychometrika. 70, 123-133. (pdf)

  • Yovel, I., Revelle, W., Mineka, S. (2005). Who Sees Trees before Forest? The Obsessive-Compulsive Style of Visual Attention Psychological Science 123-129 (pdf).
  • Ortony, A., Norman, D.A. & Revelle, W. (2005): Affect and Proto-affect in effective functioning. in J. M. Fellous & M. A. Arbib (Eds.), Who Needs Emotions? The Brain Meets the Machine. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Acton, G. S., & Revelle, W. (2004). Evaluation of ten psychometric criteria for circumplex structure. Methods of Psychological Research. http://www.dgps.de/fachgruppen/methoden/mpr-online/ 9, 1-27.

  • Revelle, W. (2003) Emotions are to Personality as Weather is to Climate: Analogical reasoning as a tool for scientific investigation. Paper presented at the ETS conference on Emotional Intelligence. November, 2003.

  • Revelle, W., Rafaeli, E, and Adler, J (2003) Personality within individuals: estimating individual differences in endogenous and exogenous affective responses: Measuring the dynamics of personality. Paper presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Graz, Austria. July, 2003.

  • Born, W. K., Revelle, W., & Pinto, L. (2002) Improving Biology Performance with Workshop Groups. Journal of Science Education and Technology. 11, 347-365.

  • Baehr, E.K., Eastman,C.I., Revelle,W. , Olson, S.H.L, Wolfe,L.F., & Zee, P.C. (2003) Circadian phase-shifting effects of nocturnal exercise in older compared to young adults Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp 284(6): R1542 – 1550

  • Acton, G. S. , & Revelle, W. (2002). Interpersonal personality measures show circumplex structure based on new psychometric criteria. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 456-481.

  • Revelle, W & Rafaeli-Mor, E (2000) Within subject measures of affect and arousal: implications for the study of personality and cognition. Prepared as part of the symposium: Energetic Aspects of personality and cognition, E. Necka and G. Matthews, chairs. (Paper presented at the 10th Meeting of the European Association of Personality Psychology, Krakow, Poland, July, 2000.) (Abstract and Powerpoint handout)

  • Baehr, E.K., Revelle, W., & Eastman, C.I. (2000). Individual differences in the phase and amplitude of the human circadian temperature rhythm: with an emphasis on morningness-eveningness. The Journal of Sleep Research, 9, 117-127
  • Gilboa-Schechtman, E.; Revelle, W.; Gotlib, I. A. (2000) Stroop Interference Following Mood Induction: Emotionality, Mood Congruence, and Concern Relevance. Cognitive Therapy Research. 24, 491-502. (pdf)
  • Revelle, W & Anderson, K.J. (1999) Personality, Motivation, and Cognitive Performance. Final Report (October, 1993- July 1997). ARI contract MDA 903-93-K-008. (pdf)
  • Revelle, W. Individual Differences. An entry for the Encylopedia of Psychology (A. Kazdin, editor).
  • Dawood, K., Pillard, R. C., Horvath, C., Revelle, W., & Bailey, J. M. (2000). Familial aspects of male homosexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 155-163.
  • Rafaeli-Mor, E.; Gotlib, I.A.; Revelle, W. (1999). The meaning and measurement of self complexity. Personality and Individual Differences. 27 341-356. (pdf)
  • Rogers, G. and Revelle, W. (1998) Personality, mood, and the evaluation of affective and neutral word pairs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1592-1605. Abstract (pdf) .
  • Revelle, W. (1997) Extraversion and Impulsivity. In Nyborg, H. (Ed.) The scientific study of human nature: Tribute to Hans J. Eysenck at eighty. Elsevier Science Press.
  • Revelle, W. (1995). Personality Processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 295-328.
  • Anderson, K. J. & Revelle, W. (1994) Impulsivity and time of day: is impulsivity related to the decay of arousal? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology., 67,334-344. Abstract (pdf)
  • Gilboa, E., & Revelle, W. (1994). Personality and the structure of emotional responses. In S. Van Goozen, N. E. Van de Poll, & J. A. Sargent (Eds.), Emotions: Essays on current issues in the field of emotion theory (pp. 135-159). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Revelle, W. (1993). Individual differences in personality and motivation: Non-cognitive determinants of cognitive performance. In A. Baddeley & L. Weiskrantz (Eds.),Attention: Selection, awareness and control: A tribute to Donald Broadbent (pp. 346-373). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Gilboa-Schechtman, E.; Revelle, W.; Gotlib, I. A. (2000) Stroop Interference Following Mood Induction: Emotionality, Mood Congruence, and Concern Relevance. Cognitive Therapy Research.

    Revelle, W. (1997) Extraversion and Impulsivity. In Nyborg, H. (Ed.) The scientific study of human nature: Tribute to Hans J. Eysenck at eighty. Elsevier Science Press. (pdf)

    Revelle, W. (1995). Personality Processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 46, 295-328.

    Anderson, K. J. & Revelle, W. (1994) Impulsivity and time of day: is impulsivity related to the decay of arousal? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology., 67,334-344. Abstract

    Gilboa, E., & Revelle, W. (1994). Personality and the structure of emotional responses. In S. Van Goozen, N. E. Van de Poll, & J. A. Sargent (Eds.), Emotions: Essays on current issues in the field of emotion theory (pp. 135-159). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. (pdf)

    Revelle, W. (1993). Individual differences in personality and motivation: Non-cognitive determinants of cognitive performance. In A. Baddeley & L. Weiskrantz (Eds.),Attention: Selection, awareness and control: A tribute to Donald Broadbent (pp. 346-373). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Revelle, W., & Loftus, D. (1992). The implications of arousal effects for the study of affect and memory. In S. A. Christianson (Ed.), Handbook of emotion and memory (pp. 113-150). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlebaum.

    Revelle, W. and Anderson, K.J. (1992) Models for the testing of theory. In A. Gale and M.W. Eysenck (Eds.) Handbook of Individual Differences: Biological Perspectives. Wiley: Chichester, England.

    Bailey, M., & Revelle, W. (1991) Increased heritability for lower IQ levels? Behavior Genetics, 21, 397-404.(Abstract)

    Revelle, W. & Loftus, D. (1990) Individual differences and arousal: implications for the study of mood and memory. Cognition and Emotion, 4, 209-237.

    Anderson, K. J., Revelle, W., & Lynch, M. J. (1990) Caffeine, impulsivity, and memory scanning: a comparison of two explanations for the Yerkes-Dodson effect. Motivation and Emotion. 13, 1-20.

    Zinbarg, R. & Revelle, W. (1989) Personality and Conditioning: A test of four models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 301-314. (pdf)

    Revelle, W. (1989) Personality, Motivation, and Cognitive Performance. P. Ackerman, R., and R. Cudeck (Eds.): Learning and Individual Differences: Abilities, Motivation, and Methodology. Erlbaum. (pp. 297-341). (pdf)

    Revelle, W. (1987) Personality and motivation: sources of inefficiency in cognitive performance. Journal of Research in Personality, 21,436-452. (pdf)

    Revelle, W., Anderson, K. J. & Humphreys, M. S. (1987) Empirical tests and theoretical extensions of arousal-based theories of personality. In J. Strelau and H.J. Eysenck (Eds) Personality Dimensions and Arousal (p 17-36). New York: Plenum.

    Revelle, W. Motivation and efficiency of cognitive performance. (1986) In D.R. Brown and J. Veroff (Eds) Frontiers of Motivational Psychology: Essays in honor of J. W. Atkinson.(105-131) Springer. (pdf)

    Klirs, E. G. & Revelle, W. (1986) Predicting variability from perceived situational similarity. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 34-50. (

    Leon, M.R., & Revelle, W. (1985) The effects of anxiety on analogical reasoning: a test of three theoretical models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1302-1315. (pdf)

    Onken, J., Hastie, R., & Revelle, W. (1985) Individual differences in the use of simplification strategies in a complex decision-making task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Performance and Perception, 11, 14-27. (pdf)

    Romer, D., & Revelle, W. (1984). Personality traits: facts or fiction? A critique of the Shweder and D'Andrade systematic distortion hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1028-1042.

    Onken, J., & Revelle, W. (1984) ANATEST: a program to generate geometric analogy problems varying in number of elements and number of transformations. Behavior research methods instruments and computers. 16, 333-334. (Mac version available)

    Humphreys, M.S., & Revelle, W. (1984). Personality, motivation, and performance: a theory of the relationship between individual differences and information processing. Psychological Review, 91, 153-184. (pdf)

    Revelle, W. (1983). Factors are fictions and other comments on individuality theory. Journal of Personality, 51, 707-714.

    Anderson, K.J. & Revelle, W. (1983). The interactive effects of caffeine, impulsivity, and task demands on a visual search task. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 127-134.

    Bowyer, P.A., Humphreys, M.S., & Revelle, W. (1983). Arousal and recognition memory: The effects of impulsivity, caffeine, and time on task. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 41-49.

    Humphreys, M.S., Lynch, M.J., Revelle, W. & Hall, J.W. (1983). Individual differences in short-term memory. In R.F. Dillon and R.R. Schmeck (Eds.), Individual differences in cognition. New York: Academic Press.

    Revelle, W. (1982) The dynamics of action and the neuropsychology of anxiety: comments upon J.A. Gray. Behavioral and Brain Science, 5, 499.

    Anderson, K.J. & Revelle, W. (1982). Impulsivity, caffeine, and proofreading: A test of the Easterbrook hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 614-624.

    Rocklin, T. & Revelle, W. (1981). The measurement of extraversion: A comparison of the Eysenck Personality Inventory and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. British Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 279-284 (pdf).

    Lessing, E.E., Williams, V., and Revelle, W. (1981). Parallel forms of the IJR Behavior Checklist for parents, teachers, and clinicians. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 34-50.

    McSweeney, A.J. and Revelle, W. (1981). The use of hierarchical cluster analysis as a method of organizing social indicator data. In Bell, R.(Ed.), Proceedings of the second national conference on need assessments in health and human services. Louisville, Kentucky: University of Louisville Press.

    Humphreys, M.S., Revelle, W., Simon, L., and Gilliland, K. (1980). Individual differences in diurnal rhythms and multiple activation states: a reply to M.W. Eysenck and Folkard. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109, 42-47.(Abstract)

    Revelle, W., Humphreys, M.S., Simon, L., and Gilliland, K. (1980) The interactive effect of personality, time of day, and caffeine: a test of the arousal model. Journal of Experimental Psycholology: General, 109, 1-31. (pdf)

    Rocklin, T. & Revelle, W. (1980). VSIMPL: A program to estimate the number of interpretable factors. Behavior Research and Instrumentation, 12, 69-70.(Mac version available)

    Craig, M.J., Humphreys, M.S., Rocklin, T. and Revelle, W. (1979). Impulsivity, neuroticism, and caffeine: Do they have additive effects on arousal? Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 404-419.

    Revelle, W., & Rocklin, T. (1979). Very Simple Structure: an alternative procedure for estimating the optimal number of interpretable factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 403-414. (pdf)

    Revelle, W. (1979). Hierarchical cluster analysis and the internal structure of tests. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 14, 57-74. (pdf)

    Revelle, W. (1978). ICLUST: A cluster analytic approach for exploratory and confirmatory scale construction. Behavior Research and Instrumentation, 10, 739-742. (Mac version available)

    Hanback, J. and Revelle, W. (1978). Arousal and perceptual sensitivity in hypochondriasis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 523-530.

    Revelle, W. and Michaels, E.J. (1976). The theory of achievement motivation revisted: the implications of inertial tendencies. Psychological Review, 83, 394-404.

    Revelle, W., Amaral, P., & Turriff, S. (1976). Introversion/extroversion, time stress, and caffeine: effect on verbal performance. Science, 192, 149-150.( pdf)

    Gray, D.B. and Revelle, W. (1974). A multidimensional religious attitude inventory related to multiple measures of race. The Journal of Social Psychology, 92, 153-154.

    Gray, D.B. and Revelle, W. (1972). A cluster analytic critique of the Multifactor Racial Attitude Inventory. The Psychological Record, 22, 103-113.

    Newcomb, T.M., Brown, D.R., Kulik, J.A., Reimer, D.J. & Revelle, W. (1971). The University of Michigan's Residential College. In Dressel, P.L. (Ed.), The New Colleges: Towards an Appraisal. American College Testing Program, Iowa City.

    Newcomb, T.M., Brown, D.R., Kulik, J.A., Reimer, D.J. & Revelle, W. (1970). Self selection and change. In Gaff, J.G. (Ed.), The Cluster College, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Book Reviews:

    Strelau, J., Farley, F.H., and Gale, A. The Biological Bases of Personality and Behavior: Vol 1: Theories, measurement techniques, and development: Vol 2: Psychophysiology, performance, and application. Hemisphere: Contemporary Psychology, 1989.

    Lowen, W. Dichotomies of the mind: a systems science model of the mind and personality. Contemporary Psychology, 1984, 29, 73-74.

    Lynn, R. Dimensions of Personality: Essays in honour of H.J. Eysenck. Personality and Individual Differences, 1983, 4, 573-574.

    Toates, F.M. & Halliday, T.R. Analysis of Motivational Processes. Contemporary Psychology, 1981, 27, 263-264.

    Weiner, B. Human Motivation. Contemporary Psychology, 1980, 25, 972-973, (with T. Rocklin).

    Mackie, R.R. Vigilance. American Journal of Psychology, 1978, 91, 550-552.

    Buss, A. and Plomin, R. A temperament theory of personality development. American Journal of Psychology, 1976, 89, 391-392.

    Everitt, B. Cluster Analysis; Hartigan, J.A. Clustering Algorithms. American Journal of Psychology, 1976, 89, 350-351.

    Atkinson, J.W. and Raynor, J.O. Motivation and Achievement. American Journal of Psychology, 1975, 88, 140-148.


    (back to Revelle vita)