William Revelle

Education

Employment

Northwestern University

  • Chairman, Department of Psychology 1987 - 1993, 1998-2001
  • Professor of Psychology 1984 - present
  • Associate Professor of Psychology 1979 -1984
  • Assistant Professor of Psychology 1973 - 1979

University of Michigan

  • Teaching Assistant, 1972-1973
  • Research Assistant, 1968-1970
United States Peace Corps Volunteer Sarawak, Malaysia September 1965-December 1967

Research

The study of personality is the last refuge of the generalist in psychology. As such, my interests in personality theory include the biological basis of personality and motivation, psychometric theory, the structure of daily mood and models of attention and memory.

Recent work in the Personality, Motivation, and Cognition Laboratory has focused on the interactive effects of personality (e.g., impulsivity, trait anxiety) and situational determinants of motivation (e.g., time-of-day, caffeine, films, monetary incentives, exercise) as they combine to influence motivational states (energetic and tense arousal), and how these motivational states in turn affect cognitive processes (sustained attention, working-memory capacity, long-term memory) to determine cognitive performance. The long term goal is to develop a better understanding of how individual differences interact with situational moderators to affect efficient information processing.

Additional work in personality theory has focused on the personality characteristics associated with differential sensitivities to cues for reward and punishment. Current work is being done on the personality and situational determinants of affective state and dimensional analyses of affect.

Another continuing project is refining Synthetic Aperture Personality Assessment (SAPA) methodology. SAPA takes advantage of the web to administer small subsets of personality and ability items to different participants responding over the web. By appropriate design considerations, it is possible to synthetically combine these small subsets into very large correlation matrices suitable for psychometric analysis. This is an ongoing project that has collected data from somewhat more than 260,000 participants on more than 1,200 different items. Examples of this work include an analysis of the structure of trust as well as the relationship between personality and cognition.

I am also working on the Personality Project , an attempt to bring information about current personality theory and research to the readers of the World Wide Web. Suggestions for additions to this project are very welcome.

For the past ten years I have been using the statistical analysis package, R, a powerful descriptive and analytical tool. As have many others faced with the problem of learning R, I have developed a short tutorial to help others. A shorter form of this tutorial is devoted to basic statistical procedures for doing personality research. In addition, I have given a number of short courses on the use of R in psychology in general and in personality in particular. I have converted many of my older programs into R and continue on developing new techniques. Earlier programs now completely rewritten in R include ICLUST and VSS (Very Simple Structure). Newer functions include estimating omega, general exploratory factor analysis and many convenient functions for working with personality (particularly Synthetic Aperture Personality Assessment-SAPA) data. The most recent version of my psych package may be downloaded from the depository at the personality-project, or the general CRAN repository at cran.R-project.org.

Recent Publications

  • Revelle, W., Condon, D. M., Wilt, J., French, J. A., Brown, A., and Elleman, L. G. (2016). Web and phone based data collection using planned missing designs. In Fielding, N. G., Lee, R. M., and Blank, G., editors, SAGE Handbook of Online Research Methods, chapter 37: Mobile Methods. Sage Publications, Inc. (in press)
  • Wilt, J. and Revelle, W. (2016). Extraversion. In Widiger, T., editor, The Oxford Handbook of the Five Factor Model. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y
  • Wilt, J., Bleidorn, W., and Revelle, W. (2016). Finding a life worth living: Meaning in life and graduation from college. European Journal of Personality, DOI: 10.1002/per.2046
  • Revelle, W. (2016). Hans Eysenck: Personality Theorist. Personality and Individual Differences, (in press)
  • Condon, D. M. and Revelle, W. (2016). Selected ICAR data from the SAPA-Project: Development and initial validation of a public-domain measure. Journal of Open Psychology Data, doi:10.5334/jopd.25
  • Condon, D. M. and Revelle, W. (2015a). Selected ICAR data from the SAPA-Project: Development and initial validation of a public-domain measure. Harvard Dataverse, doi:10.7910/DVN/AD9RVY
  • Condon, D. M. and Revelle, W. (2015c). Selected personality data from the SAPA-Project: On the structure of phrased self-report items. Journal of Open Psychology Data, 3(1), doi:10.5334/jopd.al
  • Condon, D. M. and Revelle, W. (2015b). Selected personality data from the SAPA-Project: 08dec2013 to 26jul2014. Harvard Dataverse, doi:10.7910/DVN/SD7SVE
  • Revelle, W. and Wilt, J. (2015). The data box and within subject analyses: A comment on Nesselroade and Molenaar. Multivariate Behavioral Research (in press)
  • Wilt, J. and Revelle, W. (2015) Affect, Behavior, Cognition and Desire in the Big 5: An analysis of item content and structure. 29 (4) 478-497 European Journal of Personality.
  • Revelle, W. (2015). psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research. R package version 1.5.8 http://personality-project.org/r, http://personality-project.org/r/psych-manual.pdf (This is the most recent release to CRAN.)
  • Kendall, A. D., Zinbarg, R. E., Bobova, L., Mineka, S., Revelle, W., Prenoveau, J., and Craske, M. G. (2014). Measuring positive emotion with the mood and anxiety symptom questionnaire: Psychometric properties of the anhedonic depression scale. Assessment (2016 ) 23 (1) 86-95. DOI: 10.1177/1073191115569528
  • Smillie, L. D., Wilt, J., Kabbani, R., Garratt, C., and Revelle, W. (2015). Quality of social experience explains the relation between extraversion and positive affect. Emotion, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/emo0000047
  • Condon,D.M., Wilt, J, Cohen, C.A. Revelle, W.,Hegarty, M. and Uttal, D.M. Personality and Individual Differences. (2015) (86) 38-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.023
  • Kendall, A. D., Wilt, J., Walls, C. E., Scherer, E. A., Beardslee, W. R., Revelle, W., and Shrier, L. A. (2014). The social context of positive and negative affective states in depressed youth. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 33(9):805–830 doi: 10.1521/jscp.2014.33.9.805
  • Curtis, L., Revelle, W., Waite, K. R., Wilson, E. A. H., Condon, D., Bojarski, E., Park, D. C., Baker, D., and Wolf, M. (2014). Development and validation of the comprehensive health activities scale: A new approach to health literacy measurement. Journal of Health Communication ( doi: 10.1080/10810730.2014.917744)
  • Skogsberg, K., Grabowecky, M., Wilt, J., Revelle, W., Iordanescu, L., and Suzuki, S. (2015). A relational structure of voluntary visual-attention abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance ( http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039000 )
  • Revelle, W. and Condon, D. M. (2015). A model for personality at three levels. Journal of Research in Personality, 56 70-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrp.2014.12.006.
  • Revelle, W. and Condon, D. M. (in press). Reliability. In Irwing, P., Booth, T., and Hughes, D., editors, Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Psychometric Testing. Wiley-Blackwell
  • Revelle, W. (2014). Charles Spearman. In Cautin, R. and Lilienfeld, S., editors, The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. Wiley-Blackwell (onlinelibrary)
  • Revelle, W. (2014). Francis Galton. In Cautin, R. and Lilienfeld, S., editors, The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. Wiley-Blackwell (online library)
  • Revelle, W. (2014). Hans J. Eysenck. In Cautin, R. and Lilienfeld, S., editors, The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. Wiley-Blackwell (online library)
  • Revelle, W. (2014). Raymond Cattell. In Cautin, R. and Lilienfeld, S., editors, The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology. Wiley-Blackwell (online library)
  • Condon, D. M. and Revelle, W. (2014). The International Cognitive Ability Resource: Development and initial validation of a public domain measure Intelligence, 43:52–64 doi:10.1016/j.intell.2014.01.004
  • Hauner, K., Zinbarg, R.E., and Revelle, W. (2014) A Latent Variable Model Approach to Estimating Systematic Bias in the Oversampling Method , Behavior Research Methods. 46, (3) 786-797.
  • Revelle, W. and Wilt, J (2013) The general factor of personality: a general critique. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 493-504.
  • Smillie, L.D., Geaney, J., Wilt, J., Cooper, A.J., and Revelle, W. (2013) Aspects of Extraversion are Unrelated to Pleasant Affective Reactivity: Further Examination of the Affective Reactivity Hypothesis. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 580-587.
  • Revelle, W. (2013). psych: Procedures for Personality and Psychological Research. R package version 1.3.2. http://personality-project.org/r, http://personality-project.org/r/psych-manual.pdf
  • Revelle, W. (2013) An overview of the psych pacakge. (A vignette for the psych package). http://personality-project.org/r/overview.pdf.
  • Revelle, W. (2013) Using the psych package to generate and test Structural Equation Models. (A vignette for the psych package) http://personality-project.org/r/psych_for_sem.pdf.
  • Wilson, S., Revelle, W. Stroud, C.B., & Durbin, C.E. (2012) A Confirmatory Bifactor Analysis of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems—Circumplex and Associations of Interpersonal Traits Across Multiple Relationship Contexts and Measures. Psychological Assessment, Dec 17, 2012.
  • Oehlberg, K. A., Revelle, W., and Mineka, S. (2012)Time-course of attention to negative stimuli: Negative affectivity, anxiety, or dysphoria. Emotion, 12 (5),943-959.
  • Smillie, L. D., Cooper, A., Wilt, J., and Revelle, W. (2012). Do extraverts get more bang for the buck? refining the affective-reactivity hypothesis of extraversion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(2), 306-326.
  • Revelle, W. (2012). Integrating personality, cognition and emotion: Putting the dots together? In Eysenck, M. W., Fajkowska, M., and Maruszewski, T., editors, Personality, cognition and emotion. Warsaw Lectures in Personality and Social Psychology, chapter 9, pages 157-177. Eliot Werner Publications, New York
  • Wilt,J. Condon, D.M., Brown‐Riddell,A. and Revelle,W. Fundamental Questions in Personality. European Journal of Personality, 2012
  • Revelle W., Condon D.M., and Wilt J. (2012) Caffeine. In: V.S. Ramachandran (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 1, pp. 423-429. Academic Press.
  • Saklofske D.H., Eysenck H.J., Eysenck S.B.G., Stelmack R.M., and Revelle W. (2012) Extraversion-Introversion. In: V.S. Ramachandran (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, vol. 2, pp. 150- 159. Academic Press.
  • Swarat, S., Ortony, A., & Revelle, W. (2012). Activity matters: Understanding Student Interest in School Science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(4), 515-537.
  • Revelle, W., Wilt, J., & Condon, D. (2011). Individual differences and differential psychology: A brief history and prospect. In Chamorro- Premuzic, T., Furnham, A., and von Stumm, S., editors, Handbook of Individual Differences, chapter 1, pages 3-38. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford
  • Schalet, B., Durbin, E., & Revelle, W. (2011). Multidimensional structure of the hypomanic personality scale. Psychological Assessment, 23(2):504-522
  • Wilt, J., Condon, D., and Revelle, W. (2011). Telemetrics and online data collection: Collecting data at a distance. In Laursen, B., Little, T. D., and Card, N., editors, Handbook of Developmental Research Methods, chapter 10, pages 163Ð180. Guilford Press, New York
  • Wilt, J., Oehlberg, K., & Revelle, W. (2011). Anxiety in personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7):987-993
  • Wilt, J., Funkhouser, K., and Revelle, W. (2011) The dynamic relationships of affective synchrony to perceptions of situations. Journal of Research in Personality, 45,309-321.
  • Revelle, W., Condon, D., & Wilt, J. (2011). Methodological advances in differential psychology. In Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Furnham, A., and von Stumm, S., editors, Handbook of Individual Differences, chapter 2, pages 39Ð73. Wiley-Blackwell
  • Revelle, W., Wilt, J., & Rosenthal, A. (2010) Individual differences in cognition: New methods for examining the personality-cognition link. in Aleksandra Gruszka, Gerald Matthews, and Blazej Szymura (editors): Handbook of Individual Differences in Cognition: Attention, Memory and Executive Control (pdf of draft)
  • Revelle, W. & Scherer, K.R. (2010) Personality and emotion. In the Oxford Companion to the Affective Sciences, Oxford University Press. (pdf of draft)
  • Revelle, W. & Zinbarg, R.E. (2009) Coefficients alpha, beta, omega and the glb: comments on Sijtsma. Psychometrika. 74, 1, 145-154 (pdf)
  • Wilt, J. & Revelle, W. (2009) Extraversion. In Mark Leary and Rick Hoyle (Editors). Hndbook of Individual Differences in Social Behavior. Guilford. p 27-45. (pdf of final draft).
  • Revelle, W. (2009) Personality structure and measurement: the contributions of Raymond Cattell, British Journal of Psychology, 100, 253-257. (pdf)
  • Revelle, W. & Oehlberg, K. (2008) Integrating experimental and observational personality research--the contributions of Hans Eysenck. Journal of Personality. 76, 6, 1387-1414(pdf of draft)
  • Evans, A. M. & Revelle, W. (2008) Survey and behavioral measurements of interpersonal trust. Journal of Research in Personality. (preprint)
  • Revelle, W. & Wilt, J. (2008) Personality is more than reinforcement sensitivity. European Journal of Personality, 22, 5, 407-409.
  • Revelle, W. (2008) Association for Research in Personality: the home for psychological generalists. P (newsletter of the Association for Research in Personality. 2. 1-5.
  • Ortony, A., Revelle, W. & Zinbarg, R. (2008) Why emotional intelligence needs a fluid component. in Matthews, G., Roberts, R., Zeidner, M. (eds) Emotional Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns. Oxford University Press.123-129.
  • Revelle, W. (2008) The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity theory to personality theory. In P. Corr (Ed.) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality. Cambridge University Press. p 508-527, (pdf of the draft)
  • Rafaeli, E., Rogers, G. & Revelle, W. (2007) Affective synchrony: Individual differences in mixed emotions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 915-932.
  • Zinbarg, R. E. and Revelle, W. and Yovel, I. (2007) Estimating omega_h for Structures Containing Two Group Factors: Perils and Prospects. Applied Psychological Measurement, 21, (2) 135-157.
  • Revelle, W. (2007) Experimental Approaches to the Study of Personality, In B. Robins, C. Fraley, and R. Krueger, Personality Research Methods, Guilford. p 37-61. (includes an online appendix simulating experimental data)
  • Rafaeli, E. & Revelle, W. (2006). A premature consensus: Are happiness and sadness truly opposite affects? Motivation and Emotion . 30, 1-12.(pdf from Springer). Appendices to this article are available from Eshkol Rafaeli or here.
  • Zinbarg, R., Yovel, I., Revelle, W. & McDonald, R. (2006). Estimating generalizability to a universe of indicators that all have one attribute in common: A comparison of estimators for omega. Applied Psychological Measurement, 30, 121-144. DOI: 10.1177/0146621605278814
  • Zinbarg, R.E., Revelle, W., Yovel, I., & Li. W. (2005). Cronbach's Alpha, Revelle's Beta, McDonald's Omega: Their relations with each and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Psychometrika. 70, 123-133. (pdf)
  • Yovel, I., Revelle, W., Mineka, S. (2005). Who Sees Trees before Forest? The Obsessive-Compulsive Style of Visual Attention Psychological Science 123-129 (pdf).
  • Ortony, A., Norman, D.A. & Revelle, W. (2005): Affect and Proto-affect in effective functioning. in J. M. Fellous & M. A. Arbib (Eds.), Who Needs Emotions? The Brain Meets the Machine. New York: Oxford University Press, p 173-202.

Go here for a more complete list of publications in html or for a pdf of my vita or see Northwestern Scholars or Google Scholar's organization of my research.

Recent and current grant support

  • (PI) Revelle, W. The International Cognitive Ability Resource. NSF SMA- 1419324. 4/1/14-3/31/16.
  • (Sponsor) PI: Wilt, Joshua: National Research Service Award for predoctoral training. 1 F31 MH093041-01 (1/01/11-6/30/12)
  • Co-I (Michael Wolf, PI): LITCOG II: Health Literacy and Cognitive Func- tion among Older Adults. NIH/NIA 2 R01 AG30611-04 (2007-2016)

Recent presentations

  • Condon, D. M. & Revelle, W. (2014, July). The many little items of "Big Five" measures: Hierarchy, complexity and predictive utility. Paper session at the 17th European Conference on Personality, Lausanne, Switzerland.
  • Condon, D. M. & Revelle, W. (2014, July). Cross-Domain Assessment of Individual Differences: The Unique Benefits of Public-Domain Measures. Symposia at the 17th European Conference on Personality, Lausanne, Switzerland.
  • Revelle, W. & Condon, D. M. (2014, July). Personality and ability: Assessing ability using the international cognitive ability resource (ICAR) Symposia at the 17th European Conference on Personality, Lausanne, Switzerland.
  • Elleman, L., Condon, D. M., French, J. A., & Revelle, W., (2014, February). Personality Change Beyond the Big Five: Personality Aspects, Vocational Interests and Cognitive Ability. Poster session presented at the 15th annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Austin, TX.
  • Revelle, W and Brown A. (2013) Standard errors for SAPA correlations. Presented at the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, St. Petersburg, Florida. (October, 2013)
  • Revelle, W. (2013) Expanding Eysenck's toolbox: Beyond correlational and experimental research. The H.J. Eysenck Prize Lecture, International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July, 2013, Barcelona, Spain
  • Revelle, W. and Condon, D. (2013) Personality at 3 levels of abstraction. Presented as part of a symposium: Toward Integrative theories of personality, International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July 2013, Barcelona, Spain
  • Revelle, W. (2013) Traditional and modern psychometrics using R. Presented as part of a symposium: Using R in personality research. The First World Conference on Personality, March, 2013. Stellenbosch, S.A.
  • Khairul A. Mastor, Hasnan Kasan, Joshua Wilt, and William Revelle (2013) Using multilevel modelling to study affect changes during Ramadan fasting. Presented as part of a symposium: Using R in personality research. The First World Conference on Personality, March, 2013. Stellenbosch, S.A.
  • Revelle, W. (2013) An introduction to R in Personality Research. A short course presented at the First World Conference of Personality. March, 2013. Stellenbosch, S.A.
  • David M. Condon and William Revelle (2012) The International Cognitive Ability Resources: Development and initial validation of a public-domain measure. Presented at the 13 annual meeting of the International Society for Intelligence Research, San Antonio, Texas, December, 2012. (presented by DMC).
  • William Revelle and David Condon (2012) Multilevel analysis of personality: Personality of college majors. Presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology. October, Vancouver, B.C.
  • William Revelle and David Condon (2012) Personality structure beyond the Big 5: Expanding the boundaries of personality research. Invited talk presented at the European Association of Personality Psychology "Experts Meeting". September, 2012, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
  • William Revelle and Joshua Wilt (2012) On when a factor is a general factor. Invited talk presented at the European Association of Personality Psychology ``Experts Meeting''. September, 2012, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
  • William Revelle (2012) An introduction to R: A short course. Presented at the Association for Psychological Science annual meeting. Chicago. May, 2012.
  • Revelle, W., & Condon, D. M., (2012, May). Ability or Temperament? A Psychometric Analysis of Emotional Intelligence: Is More Better? Symposium at the 24th annual convention of the Association for Psychological Sciences. Chicago, IL.
  • William Revelle and David Condon (2012) Temperament, ability, and interests predict important real world choices. Part of a Symposium: Motivation as a basic personality process. Organized by Luke Smillie and Joshua Wilt. Annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Motivation, Chicago, May, 2012.
  • William Revelle, Joshua Wilt and David Condon (2011) Telemetrics: Measuring personality at a distance. A symposium at the Biennial Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, London. July, 2011.
  • Revelle, W. (2011) .Individual differences beyond temperament: Expanding the boundaries of personality. Presented to the British Society for the Psychology of Individual Differences, July, 2011.
  • Revelle, W. (2011) R: A short Course (Presentations to the Association of Psychological Science, May, 2011 and to Association for Research in Personality, June, 2011. )
  • Revelle, W, and Wilt, J. (2010) A methodological critique of claims for a general factor of personality. Presented as part of a symposium: Mapping the Personalty Sphere, Niels Waller (organizer), European Conference on Personality, Brno, Czech Republic, July, 2010 (warning: pdf is 14 mb)
  • Revelle, W. and Wilt, J. (2009) Is there a general factor of personality? Probably not. Paper presented at the 49th annual meeting of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, Oregon, October, 2009. (4.3 mb pdf)
  • Revelle, W. (2007) I am an differential psychologist. Presidential address delivered to the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, July, 2007. Giesen, Germany. (slides)
  • Revelle, W. (2006) Individual differences in Cognition: the Personality-Cognition link. Presented at a symposiom "Individual differences in cognition" A symposium organized by Blazej Szymura and Edward Necka Cracow, Poland, September 15-17, 2006
  • Revelle, W. (2006) The ABCDs of Personality and the Problem of Categorization. Part of a Symposium: Categorisation, Decision-Making and Personality (Luke Smillie & William Revelle, organizers) European Conference of Personality, Athens, 2006.
  • Revelle, W. (2006) Synthetic Aperture Personality Assessment. Invited paper at the Midwestern Psychological Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, May, 2006.
  • Revelle, W. (2005). R: statistics for all of us. Prepared for part of the symposium on Multivariate Statistical Methods in Individual Differences Research International Society for the Study of Individual Differences Biennial meeting, Adelaide, July , 2005
  • Revelle, W. (2003) Emotions are to Personality as Weather is to Climate: Analogical reasoning as a tool for scientific investigation. Paper presented at the ETS conference on Emotional Intelligence. November, 2003.
  • Revelle, W., Laun, G. (2004) Synthetic Aperture Personality Assessment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, October, 2004.
  • Revelle, W., Rafaeli, E, and Adler, J (2003) Personality within individuals: estimating individual differences in endogenous and exogenous affective responses: Measuring the dynamics of personality. Paper presented at the 2003 meeting of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Graz, Austria. July, 2003.
  • Revelle, W & Rafaeli-Mor, E (2000) Within subject measures of affect and arousal: implications for the study of personality and cognition. Prepared as part of the symposium: Energetic Aspects of personality and cognition, E. Necka and G. Matthews, chairs. (Paper presented at the 10th Meeting of the European Association of Personality Psychology, Krakow, Poland, July, 2000.) (Abstract and pdf handout)
  • A more complete list and some abstracts of recent publications.

Personal and other interests

Although a long time resident of Evanston, I was raised in La Jolla where I tended to spend too much time on the beach or racing Flying Dutchmen. I now like to sail Lasers and Laser IIs on (and sometime in) Lake Michigan as well as kayak along the Lake Michigan shore. In 2001-2003 Eleanor and I finished a house on Lakeside Court to capture the feeling of water that we had associated with California and to demonstrate the possibilities of building an energy efficient house. I have been known to visit the occasional Ultimate Frisbee match when it is convenient.

I am the vice-chair of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists , an international organization with the mission to inform the public of existential threats to mankind, including nuclear weapons, climate change, and emerging diseases. I am interested in exploring the ways that the web can increase citizen participation by increasing public access to information using projects such as that of the League of Women Voters or the Federation of American Scientists, or the Borneo Project, which is affiliated with the Friends of Malaysia, an organization of Returned Peace Corp Volunteers. For a discussion of the way that the web can used for informing the public, see the Cyberstrategy[tm] discussion by John Pike, formerly of the FAS. Other examples of use of the web for encouraging active citizen involvement are also available. (Note that some of these are very ancient pages that are kept mainly to remind us all how far the web has progressed since 1995.)

Another use of the web is in linking distant relatives together through genealogical research.